Types of 3D Printing Technology in 2022

3d printing technology is action or process of making a physical object from a three-dimensional digital model, typically by laying down many thin layers of a material in succession is called 3d printing. Here, are different types of 3d printing defined below.

Types of 3d printing technology in 2018:-

1. 3d printing process (material extrusion):-

3d printing is defined as material extrusion is process where filament of solid thermoplastic material is pushed through heated nozzle & melting in the process.The printer deposits material on build platform along a predefined path, where the filament cools down & form solid object.

Fuse deposition modelling (FDM) is a common material extrusion process and is trademarked by the company Stratasys. Material is drawn through a nozzle, where it is heated and is then deposited layer by layer. The nozzle can move horizontally and a platform moves up and down vertically after each new layer is deposited. It is a commonly used technique used on many inexpensive, domestic and hobby 3D printers.

The process has many factors that influence the final model quality but has great potential and viability when these factors are controlled successfully. Whilst FDM is similar to all other 3D printing processes, as it builds layer by layer, it varies in the fact that material is added through a nozzle under constant pressure and in a continuous stream.

This pressure must be kept steady and at a constant speed to enable accurate results (Gibson et al., 2010). The layers can be bonded by temperature control or through the use of chemical agents. It is often added to the machine in spool form as shown in the diagram.

Material Extrusion – Step by Step

  1. First layer is built as nozzle deposits material where required onto the cross sectional area of first object slice.

  2. The following layers are added on top of previous layers.

  3. Layers are fused together upon deposition as the material is in a melted state.

  • Types of 3d printing technology :-

  1. fused deposition modeling( FDM).

  2. fused filament fabrication(FFF).

  • Material used:-

  1. Thermsplastic filament(PLA, ABS, PET, TPU).

  • Dimension:-

  1. +0.5%, -0.5% (lower limit ±0.5 mm)

  • Common application used:-

  1. Electrical housing.

  2. Form & fit testing.

  3. Jigs & fixtures.

  4. Investments & casting patterns.

  • Strengths:- best surface ,full color & multi material available.

  • Weakness:-

  1. high cost than SLA/DLP.

  2. Not suitable for mechanical parts.

2.Fused deposition modeling (FDM) :-

The fused deposition modeling is defined as material extrusion devices are most common available & cheap.3d printing technology is widely use in the world we might be familiar with them as fused deposition modeling.

Sometime they also known as fused filament fabrication.The working of fused deposition is a spool of filament is load ed into 3d printer & fed through the nozzle of extrusion head. The nozzle is heated in desired temperature, the motor push the filament through nozzle & causing it to melt.

The printer moves to head along the specify coordinates, laying down.The melton material build plate where it cools down & become solid object.when layer is completed , the printer proceeds the object to other layer.This process is repeated until when the object not formed.In this way the fused deposition modeling work.

3. 3d Printing technology process(vat polymerization):-

The vat polymerisation is defined as a photo polymer resin in a vat is selectively cure buy source of light.There are two most common forms of vat polymerisation.

  1. SLA (Stereolithography) .

  2. DLP (digital light processing).

The main difference between in 3d printing technology is the source of light is use to cure the resin. Sla printer used point laser to perform whereas dlp used contrast to voxel approach .

  • Types of 3d technology used :-

  1. Stereolithography (SLA).

  2. Direct light processing (DLP) .

  • Material:- Photopolymer resin (standard, castable, transparent, high temperature) .

  • Dimension:-

  1. +0.5%, -0.5% (lower limit ±0.15 mm).

  • Common application:-

  1. Injection mold-like polymer prototypes.

  2. Jewelry (investment casting).

  3. Dental applications.

  4. Hearing aids.

  • Strength:- smooth surface & fine feature details.

  • Weakness:-

  1. Not suitable for mechanical parts.

4. Stereolithography (SLA) :

The stereolithography is defined a s the historical distinction of being the world’s first 3d printing technology.It is invented by chuck hull in 1986, who filed a patent on technology & founded the company 3d systems to communicalize .

It sla printer uses mirrors, known as galvanometers or galvos, with one positioned on the x-axis & another on y-axis. These galvos rapidly aim a laser beam across a vat of resin, selectively curing and solidifying a cross-section of the object inside this build area, building it up layer by layer.

Sla printer use a solid state laser to cure parts.Disadvantage to 3d printing technology using laser point is that it can take longer to trace the cross-section of object when compared to dlp.

5. Digital light processing (DLP) :-

The digital light processing is defined as it is machines of 3d printing types technology are same as SLA.The difference is that DLP use digital light to projector to flash a single image of each layer all at once .The projector is digital screen, the image of each layer is composed of square pixel,resulting in a layer formed from small rectangular blocks are called voxels.

DLP print faster than SLA it is because the entire layer is exposed all at once. The tracing cross-sectional area with point of a laser. Light will be projected onto the resin using light emitting diode(LED) screens or a uv light source (lamp)that is directed to build surface by a digital micromirror device(DMD).

It is an array of micro-mirrors that control where light is projected & generate the light-pattern on the build surface.

6. 3d Printing technology process powder bed fusion (polymers):-

The powder bed fusion is defined as a 3d printing is process where a thermal energy source will be selectively induce fusion between powder particles inside a build area to create a solid object.It is a mechanism for applying & smoothing powder simultaneous to an object being fabricated, so that the final item is encased and supported in unused powder.

The Powder Bed Fusion process includes the following commonly used printing techniques: Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), Electron beam melting (EBM), Selective heat sintering (SHS), Selective laser melting (SLM) and Selective laser sintering (SLS).

Powder bed fusion (PBF) methods use either a laser or electron beam to melt and fuse material powder together. Electron beam melting (EBM), methods require a vacuum but can be used with metals and alloys in the creation of functional parts.

All PBF processes involve the spreading of the powder material over previous layers. There are different mechanisms to enable this, including a roller or a blade. A hopper or a reservoir below of aside the bed provides fresh material supply. Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is the same as SLS, but with the use of metals and not plastics.

The process sinters the powder, layer by layer. Selective Heat Sintering differs from other processes by way of using a heated thermal print head to fuse powder material together. As before, layers are added with a roller in between fusion of layers. A platform lowers the model accordingly.

Powder Bed Fusion – Step by Step

  1. A layer, typically 0.1mm thick of material is spread over the build platform.

  2. A laser fuses the first layer or first cross section of the model.

  3. A new layer of powder is spread across the previous layer using a roller.

  4. Further layers or cross sections are fused and added.

  5. The process repeats until the entire model is created. Loose, unfused powder is remains in position but is removed during post processing.

  • Types of 3d printing technology :-

  1. Selective laser sintering (SLS) .

  • Material:-

  1. Thermoplastic powder (nylon 6, nylon 11, nylon 12) .

  • Dimension:-

  • +0.3%, -0.3% (lower limit ±0.3 mm) .

  • Common application:-

  1. Functional parts.

  2. Complex ducting (hollow designs).

  3. low run part production .

  • Strengths:-Functional parts, good mechanical properties; Complex geometries

  • Weaknesses:-

  1. Longer lead times.

  2. Higher cost than FFF for functional applications .                                                 

7.Selective laser sintering (SLS) :-
The sls is defined as a creating an object with powder bed fusion technology & polymer powder is generally known as selective laser sintering.It is industrial patent expire, these types of 3d printing technology are becoming increasingly common & lower cost.A bin polymer powder is heated to a temperature just below the melting point.
A recoating blade or wiper deposits a very thin layer of powdered material, typically 0.1 mm thick, onto build platform.CO2 laser beam then begins to scan the surface.It will selectively sinter the powder & solidify a cross-section of object.SLA, the laser is focused on to the correct location by a pair of galvos. When it enter cross-section is scanned, the build platform will move down on first layer thickness in height.
The recoating blade deposits a fresh layer of powder on the top of recent scanned layer, & laser will sinter next cross-section of object on previous solidified cross-sections.This process is repeated until the object is fully manufacture.Powder which hasn’t been sintered remains in place to support object that has, which eliminates need for support structures.

8. 3d Printing technology process (Material Jetting):-

It is process of material jetting is a printing process where the droplets of material are selectively deposited & cured on build plate.The photopolymers or wax droplets that cure when exposed to light, object are built up first layer at a time.

The nature of material Jetting allows for different materials to be printed in same object.One application for this technique is to fabricate support structures from a different material to model being produced.Material jetting creates objects in a similar method to a two dimensional ink jet printer. Material is jetted onto a build platform using either a continuous or Drop on Demand (DOD) approach.

 Material is deposited from a nozzle which moves horizontally across the build platform. Machines vary in complexity and in their methods of controlling the deposition of material. The material layers are then cured or hardened using ultraviolet (UV) light.

As material must be deposited in drops, the number of materials available to use is limited. Polymers and waxes are suitable and commonly used materials, due to their viscous nature and ability to form drops.

Material Jetting– Step by Step

  1. The print head is positioned above build platform.

  2. Droplets of material are deposited from the print head onto surface where required, using either thermal or piezoelectric method.

  3. Droplets of material solidify and make up the first layer.

  4. Further layers are built up as before on top of the previous.

  5. Layers are allowed to cool and harden or are cured by UV light. Post processing includes removal of support material.

  • Types of 3D printing technology:-

  1. Material Jetting (MJ).

  2. Drop on demand (DOD).

  • Materials:-Photopolymer resin (standard, castable, transparent, high temperature).

  • Dimensional :-

  1. ±0.1 mm .

  • Common Applications:-

  1. Full color product prototypes.

  2. Injection mold-like prototypes.

  3. low run injection molds.

  4. Medical models.

  • Strengths:--

  1. Best surface finish.

  2. full color & multi-material available .

  • Weaknesses:-

  • Brittle, not suitable for mechanical parts.

  • higher cost than SLA/DLP for visual purposes.

 

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